Rather than walking or biking to a bus-stop or directly to school, more school-age children are driven to school by their parents, reducing physical activity.
Defined by the reader-text relationship: Reading comprehension and recall Evidence of content validity According to Standards for Educational and Psychological Testinga fundamental concern in judging assessments is evidence of validity. Assessments should represent clearly the content domain they purport to measure.
Based on their study of eight widely used and cited IRIs, Applegate, Quinn, and Applegate concluded that there were great variations in the way An american childhood critical analysis text passages were structured, including passages with factual content.
They observed that biographies and content area text, in some cases, matched up better with the classic definition of a story. In a similar manner, Kinney and Harry noted little resemblance between the type of text passages included in many IRIs and the text type typically read by students in middle and high school.
Relative to the IRIs examined for this analysis, text passages varied by genre and length as well as by whether the text included illustrations, photos, maps, graphs, and diagrams. A discussion of the ways in which the various IRIs approach these issues follows.
Passage genre With regard to the text types included in the IRIs under review here aligned with the perspective that reading comprehension varies by text typefive of the eight IRIs provide separate sections, or forms, for narrative and expository passages for all levels, making it easy to evaluate reading comprehension and recall for narrative text apart from expository material Applegate et al.
However, caution is advised. Despite the separation of genres, in some of the current IRIs, consistent with Applegate et al. The passage is placed in the Expository Form LE section; however, the first comprehension question asks, "What is this story about?
In fact, the authors note most of the passages were drawn from textbooks. A few of the IRIs appear to take a more holistic approach in their representation of the content domain.
In these IRIs, there is no clear separation of narrative and expository text passages. Passage length While the passages generally become longer at the upper levels to align with the more demanding texts read by older students, across inventories passage lengths at the same levels vary; some cases, within the same inventory, authors offer passages of different lengths as options at the same levels see Table 1.
For example, finding that beginning readers sometimes struggled with the word, pre-primer passage in earlier editions, Johns now includes in the ninth edition of BRI a second, shorter passage option of 25 words for each form that offers passages at the preprimer level.
In a similar manner, he offers passages of two different lengths at levels Pictures and graphic supplements Noting the benefits and drawbacks of including illustrations and other graphic supplements with the passages, IRI authors vary in their opinions on this matter. BaderCooter et al. Evidence of construct validity According to Standards for Educational and Psychological Testinga valid test also captures all the important aspects of the construct i.
Across IRIs examined, comprehension question frameworks varied in terms of which aspects of narrative or expository text comprehension they centered on, as well as what dimensions, or levels, of comprehension they measured. In addition, across the IRIs reviewed, assorted measures were used to identify extraneous factors potentially affecting comprehension scores.
A discussion of the various ways in which each IRI handles these issues follows.
All of the IRIs attempt to assess these areas either through their question schemes alone or in combination with a retelling and rubric assessment; however, in some cases, the authors use different terms for the dimensions of comprehension they measure. For measuring narrative text comprehension and recall, six of the eight IRIs focus their question schemes and retelling rubrics on story elements e.
It should be noted that the question schemes of Burns and Roe, Johns, and Woods and Moe are structured differently see Table 1.
In the assessment of expository text comprehension and recall, there is greater variety across IRIs. Four IRIs use question schemes or rubrics based on the levels of importance of information e.
Taking a different approach, Woods and Moe and Cooter et al. Johns includes a variety of rubric options specific to narrative and expository text passages but also more holistic rubrics that he suggests can be used with retellings of any text type. In addition, in the QRI-4, Leslie and Caldwell provide a think-aloud assessment option useful for capturing information about the strategies readers use while they are in the process of constructing meaning based on the text.
To facilitate the use of this assessment option, some of the expository text passages at the sixth, upper middle school, and high school levels are formatted in two different ways that allow for conducting assessments with or without student think-alouds. The authors also provide a coding system for categorizing the think-aloud types based on whether they indicate an understanding or lack of understanding of the text.
It should be noted that Bader and Silvaroli and Wheelock use similar criteria for assessing comprehension and recall of narrative versus expository text. For example, in using the BRLI Bader, for the assessment of narrative and expository passages, readers are asked to retell the "story" p.
Without a theoretical framework and clearly defined criteria to guide the examiner, it is difficult to determine if the assessment effectively captures the essential qualities of reading comprehension and recall.
Use of a scoring guide based on story grammar theory seems misplaced as a tool for judging comprehension of expository text. Although the terms for these constructs vary, and there may be subtle differences in meanings across inventories, the dimensions overlap.
For example, Leslie and Caldwell refer to explicit and implicit comprehension. Taking a different approach, Applegate et al. It should be noted that Silvaroli and Wheelock include assessment of different levels of comprehension i.
Despite concerns Applegate et al. In the past, criticisms targeting these question schemes arose out of concern due to lacking empirical support and confusion over what main idea questions in some of the IRIs actually measured.
In the ninth edition of BRI reviewed for this study, citing Schell and Hanna as his information source, even Johns himself cautions readers, "Lest teachers glibly use the classification scheme suggested, it must be emphasized that these categories of comprehension questions, although widely used, have little or no empirical support" Johns,p.BackgroundAlthough the current obesity epidemic has been well documented in children and adults, less is known about long-term risks of adult obesity for a given child at his or her present age.
BackgroundAlthough the current obesity epidemic has been well documented in children and adults, less is known about long-term risks of adult obesity for a given child at his or her present age.
BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard. A comprehensive, coeducational Catholic High school Diocese of Wollongong - Albion Park Act Justly, love tenderly and walk humbly with your God Micah There are a number of current informal reading inventories — each has its strengths, limitations, and unique characteristics, which should be considered in order to best fit a teacher's needs.
David Michelson, Emma Ciafaloni, Stephen Ashwal, Elliot Lewis, Pushpa Narayanaswami, Maryam Oskoui, Melissa J. Armstrong.