The virus can spread to humans if someone touches the bodily fluids of a rodent who has been infected. Although some of these viruses have not been associated with any known human diseases, there are others that can create potentially fatal consequences. Just recently, even human to human transmission of hantavirus has been reported. Statistics on Hantavirus 1.
Introduction During the s, more than 6, United Nations military personnel serving in Korea were stricken by a mysterious illness characterized by high fever, kidney failure, and spontaneous bleeding.
Few realize that this disease continues to claim victims in the region, with cases reported in alone. Subsequently, similar illnesses of varying severity in Asia and Europe were found to be caused by a number of distinct viruses, and the group came to be known as the Hantaviruses.
Ina new illness was reported in the southwestern United States. Unlike the Korean disease, prominent features included rapidly progressive lung infection with high mortality death rates. Despite the unique nature of the disease, a viral agent was discovered which had all of the common biological features of the older Hantavirus group.
The new illness was therefore referred to as Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome HPS. As in the Asian variety, a large number of additional Hantavirus species have since been identified in the United Statesas well as Central and South America.
Disease History, Characteristics, and Transmission Regardless of differences in clinical presentation and geographic occurrence, all of the Hantaviruses are found in rodents.
Man acquires the disease through inhalation of dried rodent excreta, or occasionally through ingestion of milk and other foods that had been contaminated by these animals.
In fact, the ability of the virus to survive in dust and the contagious nature of infected material have suggested Hantaviruses as potential agents of biorerrorism. The following is a summary of the clinical features, distribution, and epidemiology patterns, characteristics, and causes of Hantaviruses that infect humans.
Specific viruses strains, or types are arranged alphabetically. Old World Hantaviruses Clinical features Infection by the European and Asian Hantaviruses is characterized by sudden onset, with intense headache, backache, fever, and chills.
Hemorrhage is manifested during the febrile phase as a flushing of the face or injection of the conjunctiva membranes lining the eye and mucous membranes.
A petechial rash tiny, red dots may appear on the palate and axillary underarm skin folds.
Extreme albuminuria protein in the urinetypically appearing on the fourth day, is characteristic of severe hemorrhagic fever renal syndrome HFRS.
As the febrile with fever stage ends, hypotension low blood pressure may develop and last for hours to days, accompanied by nausea and vomiting. One-third of deaths occur during this phase, related to vascular leakage bleeding and shock. Patients who survive and progress to the diuretic phase show improved renal function, but may still die of shock or pulmonary lung complications.
The final convalescent phase can last weeks to months. Case-fatality rates rates calculated to show the severity of disease; the number of deaths divided by number of cases expressed as a percentage range from less than 0.
The reservoirs organisms that maintain the infective agentApodemus flavicolis the yellow-necked mouse and Apodemus agrarius, are found from England and Wales, through northwest Spain, France, southern Scandinavia, European Russia to the Urals, southern Italy, the Balkans, Syria, Lebanon, and Israel.
Hantaan virus causes epidemic hemorrhagic fever Korean hemorrhagic fever and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Puumala virus causes nephropathia epidemica a usually less severe form of hemorrhagic fever.
The house mouse Mus musculus is implicated in Serbia, and Clethrionomys rutilis in western Russia. The muskrat Ondatra zibethicus has been implicated as a disease reservoir in Germany.
Note that Puumala virus may remain infective in the environment for as long as 12 to 15 days. Saaremaa virus has been associated with human disease in Estonia, and is closely related to Dobrava virus. Seoul virus causes less severe hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.
The reservoir rat Rattus norvegicus is found worldwide.Aug 29, · Sin Nombre virus turned out to be a member of the hantavirus family. Although other hantaviruses can cause fatal illness, none is as deadly as the Sin Nombre virus.
It causes a disease called hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Other strains of hantavirus also cause HPS in the U.S. Hantavirus Infections Definition. Hantavirus infection is caused by a group of viruses that can infect humans with two Although long recognized in other countries, the disease was fairly rare in the United States, and the likelihood of infection K.Y.
"Stalking the Deadly Hantavirus: A Study in Teamwork." The Scientist 8 (July. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a rare but deadly viral infection.
It is spread by mice and rats.
They shed the virus in their urine, droppings, and saliva. Apr 14, · Risk of a rare but deadly mouse-borne virus increases in the spring Fri., April 14, , p.m. Deer mice, found almost everywhere in North America, are carriers of hantavirus, which causes a.
“While hantavirus infections are rare, they’re expected to increase in the coming decades as temperatures across the globe rise due to climate change. And we’re totally unprepared for this possibility,” said Dr. Chandran, professor of microbiology & immunology and Harold and Muriel Block Faculty Scholar in Virology at Einstein.
20 Notable Hantavirus Statistics.
It may be rare, but left untreated, it can be deadly. The Effects of Hantavirus. By knowing the statistics about hantavirus infections and how to prevent them, this disease doesn’t have to become something that changes a life.
Take proactive measures to prevent an infection from occurring today using.