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The world is everything that is the case. The world is all that is the case.
What is the case, the fact, is the existence of atomic facts. What is the case—a fact—is the existence of states of affairs.
The logical picture of the facts is the thought. A logical picture of facts is a thought. The thought is the significant proposition.
A thought is a proposition with sense. Propositions are truth-functions of elementary propositions. A proposition is a truth-function of elementary propositions.
An elementary proposition is a truth function of itself. This is the general form of proposition. This is the general form of a proposition.
Whereof one cannot speak, thereof one must be silent. What we cannot speak about we must pass over in silence. The world is represented by thought, which is a proposition with sense, since they all—world, thought, and proposition—share the same logical form.
Hence, the thought and the proposition can be pictures of the facts. Starting with a seeming metaphysics, Wittgenstein sees the world as consisting of facts 1rather than the traditional, atomistic conception of a world made up of objects.
Facts are existent states of affairs 2 and states of affairs, in turn, are combinations of objects. They may have various properties and may hold diverse relations to one another. Objects combine with one another according to their logical, internal properties.
Thus, states of affairs, being comprised of objects in combination, are inherently complex. The states of affairs which do exist could have been otherwise. This means that states of affairs are either actual existent or possible.
It is the totality of states of affairs—actual and possible—that makes up the whole of reality. The world is precisely those states of affairs which do exist. Pictures are made up of elements that together constitute the picture. Each element represents an object, and the combination of elements in the picture represents the combination of objects in a state of affairs.
The logical structure of the picture, whether in thought or in language, is isomorphic with the logical structure of the state of affairs which it pictures.
This leads to an understanding of what the picture can picture; but also what it cannot—its own pictorial form. Logical analysis, in the spirit of Frege and Russell, guides the work, with Wittgenstein using logical calculus to carry out the construction of his system.incommensurability.
Incapable of being measured against a common standard. The presumed incommensurability of individual human pleasures is sometimes raised as an objection against hedonistic versions of utilitarianism.
Feyerabend and Kuhn suppose that rival scientific theories are incommensurable if neither can be fully stated in the vocabulary of the other. But the philosophy that killed off truth proclaims unlimited tolerance for the 'language games' (i.e., opinions, beliefs and doctrines) that people find useful.
Wittgenstein and Aesthetics: A Bibliography. Massimo Baldi. In these pages the reader will find a bibliography whose subject is the relationship between Wittgenstein’s Work and Aesthetics in the range of years - Fodor’s Misconstrual of Wittgenstein in the Language of Thought In his book, The Language of Thought, Jerry Fodor claims that i) Wittgenstein’s private language argument is not in fact against Fodor’s theory, and ii) Wittgenstein’s private language argument “isn’t really any good” (70).
George Edward Moore (—) G. E.
Moore was a highly influential British philosopher of the early twentieth century. His career was spent mainly at Cambridge University, where he taught alongside Bertrand Russell and, later, Ludwig Wittgenstein. JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources.