The human mind can hardly remain entirely free from bias, and decisive opinions are often formed before a thorough examination of a subject from all its aspects has been made. This is said with reference to the prevailing double mistake a of limiting Theosophy to Buddhism: We theosophists of India are ourselves the real culprits, although, at the time, we did our best to correct the mistake.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche Nihilism is often associated with the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzschewho provided a detailed diagnosis of nihilism as a widespread phenomenon of Western culture. Though the notion appears frequently throughout Nietzsche's work, he uses the term in a variety of ways, with different meanings and connotations.
Karen Carr describes Nietzsche's characterization of nihilism "as a condition of tension, as a disproportion between what we want to value or need and how the world appears to operate. Nietzsche characterized nihilism as emptying the world and especially human existence of meaning, purpose, comprehensible truth, or essential value.
This observation stems in part from Nietzsche's perspectivismor his notion that "knowledge" is always by someone of some thing: Interpreting is something we can not go without; in fact, it is something we need.
One way of interpreting the world is through morality, as one of the fundamental ways that people make sense of the world, especially in regard to their own thoughts and actions.
Nietzsche distinguishes a morality that is strong or healthy, meaning that the person in question is aware that he constructs it himself, from weak morality, where the interpretation is projected on to something external.
Nietzsche discusses Christianity, one of the major topics in his work, at length in the context of the problem of nihilism in his notebooks, in a chapter entitled "European Nihilism". In this sense, in constructing a world where objective knowledge is possible, Christianity is an antidote against a primal form of nihilism, against the despair of meaninglessness.
However, it is exactly the element of truthfulness in Christian doctrine that is its undoing: It is therefore that Nietzsche states that we have outgrown Christianity "not because we lived too far from it, rather because we lived too close".
Because Christianity was an interpretation that posited itself as the interpretation, Nietzsche states that this dissolution leads beyond skepticism to a distrust of all meaning.
Rejecting idealism thus results in nihilism, because only similarly transcendent ideals live up to the previous standards that the nihilist still implicitly holds.
One such reaction to the loss of meaning is what Nietzsche calls passive nihilism, which he recognises in the pessimistic philosophy of Schopenhauer. Schopenhauer's doctrine, which Nietzsche also refers to as Western Buddhismadvocates a separating of oneself from will and desires in order to reduce suffering.
Nietzsche characterises this ascetic attitude as a "will to nothingness ", whereby life turns away from itself, as there is nothing of value to be found in the world.
This mowing away of all value in the world is characteristic of the nihilist, although in this, the nihilist appears inconsistent: According to this view, our existence action, suffering, willing, feeling has no meaning: He approaches the problem of nihilism as deeply personal, stating that this predicament of the modern world is a problem that has "become conscious" in him.
I believe it is one of the greatest crises, a moment of the deepest self-reflection of humanity. Whether man recovers from it, whether he becomes master of this crisis, is a question of his strength! He wished to hasten its coming only so that he could also hasten its ultimate departure.
This alternate, 'active' nihilism on the other hand destroys to level the field for constructing something new. This form of nihilism is characterized by Nietzsche as "a sign of strength,"  a willful destruction of the old values to wipe the slate clean and lay down one's own beliefs and interpretations, contrary to the passive nihilism that resigns itself with the decomposition of the old values.
It may be questioned, though, whether "active nihilism" is indeed the correct term for this stance, and some question whether Nietzsche takes the problems nihilism poses seriously enough.
Only recently has Heidegger's influence on Nietzschean nihilism research faded. Heidegger's method of researching and teaching Nietzsche is explicitly his own.
He does not specifically try to present Nietzsche as Nietzsche. He rather tries to incorporate Nietzsche's thoughts into his own philosophical system of Being, Time and Dasein.
The principle of this devaluation is, according to Heidegger, the Will to Power. The Will to Power is also the principle of every earlier valuation of values. One of Heidegger's main critiques on philosophy is that philosophy, and more specifically metaphysics, has forgotten to discriminate between investigating the notion of a being Seiende and Being Sein.
According to Heidegger, the history of Western thought can be seen as the history of metaphysics. And because metaphysics has forgotten to ask about the notion of Being what Heidegger calls Seinsvergessenheitit is a history about the destruction of Being.
That is why Heidegger calls metaphysics nihilistic. Gianni Vattimo points at a back-and-forth movement in European thought, between Nietzsche and Heidegger.
During the s, a Nietzschean 'renaissance' began, culminating in the work of Mazzino Montinari and Giorgio Colli.Aristotle conceives of ethical theory as a field distinct from the theoretical sciences. Its methodology must match its subject matter—good action—and must respect the fact that in this field many generalizations hold only for the most part.
Aristotle thought that a good life is one spent in contemplation, exercising reason, and acquiring knowledge; Plato that the good life is a harmonious life achieved through order and balance. Neither of these ancient ideas requires that a . Some exclude beliefs and practices that many people passionately defend as religious.
For example, their definition might requite a belief in a God or Goddess or combination of Gods and Goddesses who are responsible for the creation of the universe and for its continuing operation.
Benedict De Spinoza (—) Benedict de Spinoza was among the most important of the post-Cartesian philosophers who flourished in the second half of the 17th ashio-midori.com made significant contributions in virtually every area of philosophy, and his writings reveal the influence of such divergent sources as Stoicism, Jewish Rationalism, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Descartes, and a variety of.
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