Barium sulfate and the gastrointestinal tract essay

Barium sulfate Save Barium sulfate or sulphate is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ba SO. It is a white crystalline solid that is odorless and insoluble in water.

Barium sulfate and the gastrointestinal tract essay

Associated with Th17 [] Vaguely associated with Th2 During a colonoscopybiopsies of the colon are often taken to confirm the diagnosis. Certain characteristic features of the pathology seen point toward Crohn's disease; it shows a transmural pattern of inflammationmeaning the inflammation may span the entire depth of the intestinal wall.

There is usually an abrupt transition between unaffected tissue and the ulcer—a characteristic sign known as skip lesions. Under a microscope, biopsies of the affected colon may show mucosal inflammation, characterized by focal infiltration of neutrophilsa type of inflammatory cell, into the epithelium.

This typically occurs in the area overlying lymphoid aggregates. These neutrophils, along with mononuclear cellsmay infiltrate the cryptsleading to inflammation crypititis or abscess crypt abscess. The granulomas of Crohn's disease do not show "caseation", a cheese-like appearance on microscopic examination characteristic of granulomas associated with infections, such as tuberculosis.

Biopsies may also show chronic mucosal damage, as evidenced by blunting of the intestinal villiatypical branching of the crypts, and a change in the tissue type metaplasia. One example of such metaplasia, Paneth cell metaplasia, involves development of Paneth cells typically found in the Barium sulfate and the gastrointestinal tract essay intestine and a key regulator of intestinal microbiota in other parts of the gastrointestinal system.

Barium sulfate and the gastrointestinal tract essay

Disease in the small bowel is particularly difficult to diagnose, as a traditional colonoscopy allows access to only the colon and lower portions of the small intestines; introduction of the capsule endoscopy [] aids in endoscopic diagnosis. Giant multinucleate cellsa common finding in the lesions of Crohn's disease, are less common in the lesions of lichen nitidus.

Section of colectomy showing transmural inflammation Resected ileum from a person with Crohn's disease Classification[ edit ] Distribution of gastrointestinal Crohn's disease.

Crohn's disease is one type of inflammatory bowel disease IBD. It typically manifests in the gastrointestinal tract and can be categorized by the specific tract region affected. A disease of both the ileum the last part of the small intestine that connects to the large intestineand the large intestine, Ileocolic Crohn's accounts for fifty percent of cases.

Crohn's ileitis, manifest in the ileum only, accounts for thirty percent of cases, while Crohn's colitis, of the large intestine, accounts for the remaining twenty percent of cases and may be particularly difficult to distinguish from ulcerative colitis.

Gastroduodenal Crohn's disease causes inflammation in the stomach and first part of the small intestine, called the duodenum. Jejunoileitis causes spotty patches of inflammation in the top half of the small intestine, called the jejunum.

Crohn's disease - Wikipedia

However, individuals affected by the disease rarely fall outside these three classifications, with presentations in other areas. These categorizations formalized in the Vienna classification of the disease. Stricturing disease causes narrowing of the bowel that may lead to bowel obstruction or changes in the caliber of the feces.

Penetrating disease creates abnormal passageways fistulae between the bowel and other structures, such as the skin. Inflammatory disease or nonstricturing, nonpenetrating disease causes inflammation without causing strictures or fistulae.

On occasion, the colonoscopy can travel past the terminal ileum, but it varies from person to person. During the procedure, the gastroenterologist can also perform a biopsy, taking small samples of tissue for laboratory analysis, which may help confirm a diagnosis.

Finding a patchy distribution of disease, with involvement of the colon or ileum, but not the rectumis suggestive of Crohn's disease, as are other endoscopic stigmata.

Radiologic tests[ edit ] A small bowel follow-through may suggest the diagnosis of Crohn's disease and is useful when the disease involves only the small intestine.

Because colonoscopy and gastroscopy allow direct visualization of only the terminal ileum and beginning of the duodenumthey cannot be used to evaluate the remainder of the small intestine.

As a result, a barium follow-through X-ray, wherein barium sulfate suspension is ingested and fluoroscopic images of the bowel are taken over time, is useful for looking for inflammation and narrowing of the small bowel. They remain useful for identifying anatomical abnormalities when strictures of the colon are too small for a colonoscope to pass through, or in the detection of colonic fistulae in this case contrast should be performed with iodate substances.

Rarely autoimmune hemolysis may occur. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate ESR and C-reactive protein help assess the degree of inflammation, which is important as ferritin can also be raised in inflammation.


Anemia of chronic disease results in a normocytic anemia. Other causes of anemia include medication used in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, like azathioprine, which can lead to cytopenia, and sulfasalazine, which can also result in folate deficiency.

Testing for Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies ASCA and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies ANCA has been evaluated to identify inflammatory diseases of the intestine [] and to differentiate Crohn's disease from ulcerative colitis.

It is important to differentiate these diseases, since the course of the diseases and treatments may be different. In some cases, however, it may not be possible to tell the difference, in which case the disease is classified as indeterminate colitis.Barium sulfate (or sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ba SO is a white crystalline solid that is odorless and insoluble in occurs as the mineral barite, which is the main commercial source of barium and materials prepared from it.

The white opaque appearance and its high density are exploited in its main . Everything on Medicowesome searchable in one page - The contents page! Jul 31,  · An Online Tagalog - English Dictionary Learn Tagalog or Filipino Language for free.

The esophagus, or gullet, is the tube that connects the throat, or pharynx, with the stomach. It is located between the windpipe, or trachea, and the spine.

Radiographic anatomy and reference intervals for gastrointestinal contrast transit time in inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) were established using seven animals administered 15 ml/kg of a 35% w/v suspension of barium by esophageal gavage. Dorso-ventral and lateral radiographic views were performed at 0, 15, 30 min, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 h, and then every 12 h up to 96 h after barium administration.

Barium sulfate and the gastrointestinal tract essay

Barium sulfate is an extremely insoluble barium compound that is not poisonous. Doctors use it in X-ray examinations of a patient's digestive system. The barium sulfate absorbs X rays to show an outline of the intestines on the developed film.

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