Thinking Skills Thinking skills are the mental activities you use to process information, make connections, make decisions, and create new ideas. Everybody has thinking skills, but not everyone uses them effectively.
Concept mapping assessment CMA enables teachers to view students' organization of their knowledge at various points in training. Maps were scored independently by 3 raters using a standardized method.
The study was conducted in May and June Concept mapping assessment and standardized testing may measure different cognitive domains. During the past few decades medical curricula have increasingly reflected the belief that students should understand concepts, as opposed to rote memorization of facts or procedural algorithms.
Many medical schools have adopted alternative teaching and learning strategies that challenge students to become self-directed learners who continuously expand the limits of their knowledge and seek Critical thinking strategies concept mapping for clinical decision making.
In this article, we describe an application of concept mapping assessment CMA that provides a "window" into learners' organization of knowledge at various points in training. Concept mapping is a technique developed by Joseph Novak in the s in which students create a 2-dimensional diagram outlining their understanding of the relationships between and among important concepts within a given subject area.
While concept mapping has been used frequently as a learning tool, especially in high school and college science education, it has only rarely been used as an assessment method, primarily because there is limited information regarding its validity and reliability.
In addition, we sought to determine whether concept maps could be scored in a reliable way. Methods Study Subjects and Design All pediatric residents 33 total at our institution were eligible to participate in this study, which was approved by our institutional human subjects committee.
Written informed consent was obtained. A total of 21 residents enrolled: Each participant underwent concept map training followed by drawing a preinstruction concept map about the topic seizures.
They then participated in a 3-session seizure education course followed by drawing a postinstruction map about seizures.
All study subjects participated in a standardized concept map training exercise based on previously described methods. Residents then participated in a 3-session 1 hour per session seizure education course consisting of case-based instruction. One week after completing the course, residents drew a postinstruction concept map about seizures under the same conditions as before.
Concept Maps We used a modification of the "hierarchical technique" of concept mapping in which a concept map consists of 5 components: Creating a concept map involves connecting related concepts using arrow lines with a statement or proposition written above the line describing how the concepts are related.
A concept linked to another concept by an arrow line with a propositional statement, called a concept link, represents the foundational unit of a concept map.
The expression of the hierarchy between concepts is indicated by the direction of the arrow in the concept link with the most general concepts arranged at the top and more specific concepts arranged hierarchically below. Three levels of hierarchy are represented in Figure 1.
The linking of a series of related concept links in a hierarchical fashion represents a domain of knowledge. Cross-links are the method by which the map author indicates how different domains of knowledge are related to each other and are a critical measure of map complexity.
In a manner similar to propositions, cross-links are labeled with a phrase that describes the relationship of the domains. In the example map, motion connected to states by the proposition determines defines a cross-link.
Examples are labeled and connected to the related concept in the most subordinate position on the map. In Figure 1Lake Tahoe is a specific example of a lake.
Theoretically, as a learner's conceptual framework changes, he or she links new propositions sequentially concept linksgeneral to specific hierarchyand across domains cross-linksthus demonstrating integration of knowledge. Maps were scored in 4 categories: The value of each scoring category represents the depth of thinking required to form the category.
A cross-link was given 10 points, while an example counted for 1 point. Invalid links or concepts were given 0 points. A total score and subscore for each category concept links, cross-links, hierarchy, and examples were generated for each map. Standard total scores and standard subscores consisting of the sum of individual rater total scores and subscores, respectively, were assigned to each map.
The correlation of each rater's total scores and subscores for each map was tested using Spearman rank correlation. All other data analyses were done using standard total scores and standard subscores.
We compared preinstruction map to postinstruction map scores using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. To assess the relationship of concept map scores to standard written examinations, we compared the most recent American Board of Pediatrics In-training Examination ITE scores of second- and third-year residents to first-year residents using the 2-sample Wilcoxon rank sum test.
First- and second-year residents took the examination within 1 month of completing this study, while third-year residents took the examination 10 months prior to completing the study. We then tested the relationship of concept map scores to ITE scores using Spearman rank correlation.The Concept Map Generator is a program that allows users to create, save as PDFs to their desktop, and print concept maps.
Features include: Features include: Tools – Lines and double arrow lines show the concept map linkages. Various teaching strategies have been proposed that promote critical thinking, including service learning, role playing, reflective learning, the critical incidence conference, videotaped vignettes, preceptorship, and concept mapping.
It notes that concept mapping technique is being used in adult education and other fields, like psychology, sociology and medicine since it was first described in the s.
Restructuring Curriculum For Critical Thinking. An active strategy for teaching students the skills to think critically is the concept map. This study explores the development of critical thinking among nursing students in a required pathophysiology and pharmacology course during the first year of a Bachelor of Science in Nursing in response to concept mapping as an interventional strategy.
Wheeler and Collins () found that the use of concept maps to link knowledge and practice was an effective means of improving critical thinking skills in baccalaureate nursing students.
The learning strategy of using concept maps has been around for more than 20 years and used in many disciplines.
Art Criticism Concept Map that helps students participate in critical thinking activities and discussions as well as informing the work they make on their own.
In a time when art is becoming extinct in schools across the critiques are a way to practice critical thinking skills.