Knight-El There have been various black leadership personalities and black spokespersons that have risen to national and international prominence since our sojourn in America to Presentwhich have shaped and impacted the intellectual landscape of the so-called African American, but perhaps none have had the lasting affects as Marcus Mosiah Garvey and WEB Dubois on the organizational and intellectual development on those who followed; these two, along with Booker T. Washington individuals truly laid the modern leadership foundation for most black leaders that followed after them.
Civil War Reconstruction failed to assure the full rights of citizens to the freed slaves. By the s, Ku Klux Klan terrorism, lynchings, racial-segregation laws, and voting restrictions made a mockery of the rights guaranteed by the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments, which were passed after the Civil War.
The problem for African Americans in the early years of the 20th century was how to respond to a white society that for the most part did not want to treat black people as equals. Three black visionaries offered different solutions to the problem. Washington argued for African Americans to first improve themselves through education, industrial training, and business ownership.
Equal rights would naturally come later, he believed. Du Bois agreed that self-improvement was a good idea, but that it should not happen at the expense of giving up immediate full citizenship rights.
Another visionary, Marcus Garvey, believed black Americans would never be accepted as equals in the United States. He pushed for them to develop their own separate communities or even emigrate back to Africa. Washington was born a slave in Virginia in Early on in his life, he developed a thirst for reading and learning.
After attending an elementary school for African-American children, Washington walked miles to enroll in Hampton Institute, one of the few black high schools in the South. Armstrong, a former Union officer, had developed a highly structured curriculum, stressing discipline, moral character, and training for practical trades.
Following his graduation from Hampton, for a few years Washington taught elementary school in his hometown. InGeneral Armstrong invited him to return to teach at Hampton. A year later, Armstrong nominated Washington to head a new school in Tuskegee, Alabama, for the training of black teachers, farmers, and skilled workers.
Washington designed, developed, and guided the Tuskegee Institute. It became a powerhouse of African-American education and political influence in the United States. He used the Hampton Institute, with its emphasis on agricultural and industrial training, as his model.
Washington argued that African Americans must concentrate on educating themselves, learning useful trades, and investing in their own businesses. Hard work, economic progress, and merit, he believed, would prove to whites the value of blacks to the American economy.
Washington believed that his vision for black people would eventually lead to equal political and civil rights.
In the meantime, he advised blacks to put aside immediate demands for voting and ending racial segregation. In his famous address to the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta, Georgia, Washington accepted the reality of racial segregation.
He insisted, however, that African Americans be included in the economic progress of the South. Washington declared to an all-white audience, "In all things social we can be as separate as the fingers, yet one as the hand in all things essential to mutual progress.
Recognized by whites as the spokesman for his people, Washington soon became the most powerful black leader in the United States. He had a say in political appointments and which African-American colleges and charities would get funding from white philanthropists.
He controlled a number of newspapers that attacked anyone who questioned his vision. Washington considered himself a bridge between the races.the common heritage which Du Bois and Garvey shared, the first chapter of this study is devoted to the 19th century Pan-African background.
The second and . Apr 07, · MARCUS GARVEY VERSUS W.E.B. DUBOIS: WHAT HAVE WE LEARNT FROM THESE TWO GIANTS? Thanks for your post! I am a student at NCCU doing research on Du Bois and Garvey at UNC for the summer. Your post has helped me . The Conflict Between Marcus Garvey and W. E. B. Du Bois - Kindle edition by Eva Kiss.
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Du Bois. Jul 30, · Du Bois vs. Marcus Garvey Apparently, Marcus thought Du Bois was an elitist who was an Uncle Tom while Du Bois perceived Marcus has someone who was just using civil rights as a scapegoat to promote his brand while he has no real solution for racial equality and black mobility.
On the th anniversary of W.E.B. Du Bois’s birth, Anthony Monteiro discusses the opposing views on Pan Africanism of Du Bois and Marcus Garvey MLK: Why I Am Opposed to The War in Vietnam The. Du Bois was a political and literary giant of the 20th century, publishing over twenty books and thousand of essays and articles throughout his life.
W. E. B Du Bois is arguably one of the most imaginative, perceptive, and prolific founders of the sociological discipline.