Human adaptation

Efficiency[ edit ] The human eye can function from very dark to very bright levels of light; its sensing capabilities reach across nine orders of magnitude.

Human adaptation

Human adaptation Change Adaptation to Protect Human Health Jordan project profile Jordan project objective To increase adaptive capacity to respond to health risks resulting from water scarcity induced by climate change in Jordan.

Climate change in Jordan The climate of Jordan is predominantly of the Mediterranean type. Human adaptation is characterized by a hot dry summer and rather cool wet winter, with two transitional periods. Jordan is classified as semi arid to arid region, with scarce water resources compared with other countries in the Middle East.

Human adaptation

Water resources in Jordan depend mainly on precipitation within the country. Climate change is expected to increase temperatures and change precipitation patterns, decreasing surface water availability and, acting on top of other stresses, increase water scarcity in the country.

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Key health concerns and vulnerability to climate change Jordan is ranked among the poorest countries in the world in terms of water availability. Resources are already seriously limited and are far below the water poverty line of m3 per capita per year.

Projected increases in temperature and changes in precipitation patterns are expected will increase water scarcity. The lack of water and secondary effects of these changes are considered as the highest priority threat to health in Jordan.

Water scarcity will have a direct impact on the health of Jordanians. Due to the serious vulnerabilities of water scarcity, the national Government has prioritized the use of clean water for domestic supply. This should avoid much of the direct health risks from water scarcity: However, the proposed increase in use of wastewater reuse as an alternative water supply could raise a series of health risks.

Unless adequately managed, both untreated and to a lesser extent treated wastewater poses significant risks to health. Increasing agricultural use of wastewater, driven by climate change, is likely to increase intestinal diseases and exposure to toxic chemicals for farmers, neighbouring communities, and consumers.

Project scope This project will focus on; i strengthening monitoring and surveillance capacity, ii development of the necessary institutional and regulatory framework for safe use of wastewater; and iii increasing the capacity related to health protection measures and pilot testing these in the field.

To achieve this goal, several adaptive capacity issues will be addressed: Standards and criteria - The use of treated water in agriculture, and points of monitoring of treated wastewater effluent, are currently unregulated. There are also no reuse criteria related to hygiene, public health and quality control or irrigation techniques, degree of wastewater treatment, and choice of areas and types of crops to be irrigated.

Monitoring - The lack of efficient control and monitoring on safe practices of wastewater reuse in agriculture. Capacity - The lack of trained personnel both in the competent authorities and the treatment plants.

Communication - The low level of awareness of the farmers and the public at large, and the lack of communication and information dissemination between the different parties involved. Project outcomes and outputs Outcome 1: A comprehensive and integrated monitoring and surveillance systems for wastewater reuse activities is in place.

Regulatory and institutional frameworks for management of health risks associated with increased wastewater reuse in unrestricted agriculture are improved and implemented. Health protection measures for safe wastewater reuse are defined and implemented in 10 pilot sites.

Coordination and implementation of existing monitoring systems of quality of treated wastewater used in agriculture are improved. National health guidelines or standards for safe wastewater reuse are developed and promoted.

A manual and operating procedure on health protection measures for all vulnerable groups farmers, nearby communities, and consumers is developed. Coordination and implementation of existing monitoring systems for food safety are improved. Institutional responsibilities to operationalize the national health guidelines for safe wastewater re-use are defined.In honor of the th birthday of Osamu Dazai, Usamaru Furuya retells Dazai's most important work No Longer Human in modern day Tokyo where modern vices can bring ruin to the self-loathing.

Furuya's adaptation of No Longer Human takes place nearly seventy years after Dazai's original. In ocular physiology, adaptation is the ability of the eye to adjust to various levels of light.

Natural night vision, or scotopic vision, is the ability to see under low-light humans, rod cells are exclusively responsible for night vision as cone cells are only able to function at higher illumination levels.

Night vision is of a much poorer quality than day vision because it is. Human Adaptation to Extreme Stress: From the Holocaust to Vietnam (Springer Series on Stress and Coping) Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed.

Edition. Climate Change Adaptation to Protect Human Health Global project overview. WHO, along with UNDP, launched in the first global project on public health adaptation to climate change. This book examines the concept of adaptation in four major fields in the human sciences.

Genetic aspects are first considered through an examination of the human genes which have so far been identified as conferring survival value in . Articles published on this site are handouts/class notes prepared by the editors based on the references cited.

Contents provided in these articles are meant for general information only, and are not suggested as replacement to standard references.

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