History — History is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory and it is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians and their works continue to be read today, and the gap between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. Ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries, the modern study of history is wide-ranging, and includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation.
The Glosses were formerly considered to include the first instances of early Spanish, the codex is known as Aemilianensis 60 and was preserved in the monastery library at Yuso. The manuscripts current location is the Real Academia de la Historia in Madrid, the longest gloss appears on page 72 of the manuscripts.
Old text Con o aiutorio de nuestro dueno Christo, dueno salbatore, facanos Deus Omnipotes tal serbitio fere ke denante ela sua face gaudioso segamus. Translation With the help of our Lord Christ, Lord Savior, Lord who is in honor, Lord that has command with the Father, god Omnipotent, make us do such a service that before His face joyful we are.
Comparison of some words used in the glosses, along with their current corresponding forms in Aragonese, Spanish, Aemilianensis 60 has been publicized as the earliest known codex with inscriptions in Basque, though other codices are posited. Only two of the glosses in Aemilianensis 60 are actually in Basque and these short texts can be seen on the plaque.
However, it has suggested that some of the Romance glosses reflect the influence of the Basque language. Illuminated manuscript — An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders and miniature illustrations. Comparable Far Eastern and Mesoamerican works are described as painted, islamic manuscripts may be referred to as illuminated, illustrated or painted, though using essentially the same techniques as Western works.
This article covers the technical, social and economic history of the subject, for an art-historical account, the earliest surviving substantive illuminated manuscripts are from the period toproduced in the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths and the Eastern Roman Empire. The significance of these works lies not only in their inherent artistic and historical value, had it not been for the monastic scribes of Late Antiquity, most literature of Greece and Rome would have perished in Europe.
As it was, the patterns of textual survivals were shaped by their usefulness to the severely constricted literate group of Christians, the majority of surviving manuscripts are from the Middle Ages, although many survive from the Renaissance, along with a very limited number from Late Antiquity.
The majority of manuscripts are of a religious nature. However, especially from the 13th century onward, a number of secular texts were illuminated. Most illuminated manuscripts were created as codices, which had superseded scrolls, a very few illuminated manuscript fragments survive on papyrus, which does not last nearly as long as vellum or parchment.
Most medieval manuscripts, illuminated or not, were written on parchment, beginning in the late Middle Ages manuscripts began to be produced on paper. Illuminated manuscripts continued to be produced in the early 16th century, Manuscripts are among the most common items to survive from the Middle Ages, many thousands survive.
They are also the best surviving specimens of medieval painting, indeed, for many areas and time periods, they are the only surviving examples of painting. There are a few examples from later periods, the type of book that was most often heavily and richly illuminated, sometimes known as a display book, varied between periods.
In the first millennium, these were most likely to be Gospel Books, such as the Lindisfarne Gospels, the Romanesque period saw the creation of many huge illuminated complete Bibles — one in Sweden requires three librarians to lift it.
Many Psalters were also illuminated in both this and the Gothic period. Finally, the Book of Hours, very commonly the personal book of a wealthy layperson, was often richly illuminated in the Gothic period. Other books, both liturgical and not, continued to be illuminated at all periods, the Byzantine world also continued to produce manuscripts in its own style, versions of which spread to other Orthodox and Eastern Christian areas.
See Medieval art for other regions, periods and types, reusing parchments by scraping the surface and reusing them was a common practice, the traces often left behind of the original text are known as palimpsests.
The Gothic period, which saw an increase in the production of these beautiful artifacts, also saw more secular works such as chronicles 3. Eusebian Canons — Eusebian canons, Eusebian sections or Eusebian Apparatus, also known as Ammonian Sections, are the system of dividing the four Gospels used between late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
The divisions into chapters and verses used in modern texts date only from the 13th and 16th centuries, the sections are indicated in the margin of nearly all Greek and Latin manuscripts of the Bible, and usually summarized in Canon Tables at the start of the Gospels.
There are about sections, for Matthew, for Mark, for Luke, and for John and it was traditionally believed that he divided the four Gospels into small numbered sections, which were similar in content where the narratives are parallel.
In the first nine tables he placed in parallel columns the numbers of the common to the four. In the tenth he noted successively the sections special to each evangelist and these marginal notes are reproduced in several editions of Tischendorfs New Testament. Eusebiuss explanatory letter to Carpianus was also very often reproduced before the tables and this form was derived from Late Antique book-painting frames like those in the Chronography of In many examples the tables are the decoration in the whole book.
Chronicon This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Herbermann, Charles. British Library illuminated manuscripts - add canon tables to search box for many examples 4. He wrote the poems The Rime of the Ancient Mariner and Kubla Khan and his critical work, especially on William Shakespeare, was highly influential, and he helped introduce German idealist philosophy to English-speaking culture.Bloom’s Literary Themes f Alienation The American Dream Death and Dying The Grotesque The Hero’s Journey Human Sexuality The Labyrinth Rebirth and Renewal Bloom’s Literary.
Harold Frederic's The Damnation of Theron Ware a study guide with annotated bibliography was published. Frederics In the Valley was published. Frederics The Lawton Girl was published.
The Picture of Dorian Gray, by Oscar Wilde (), was published. American Protective Association (APA) was established to promote antiCatholicism. Free immortality Essays and Papers – helpme.
Posted on July 29, by admin. A villain (also known as the The first use of the phrase social Darwinism was in Joseph Fishers article on The History of Landholding in Ireland which was published in the Transactions of the Royal Historical Society.
Although neither one was a prince and the first was not royal, then, Oscar Wildes novel The Picture of Dorian. The Picture of Dorian Gray, Oscar Wilde The Helpmate, May Sinclair Transactions of the National Eisteddfod of Wales, Carnarvon, , E.
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