Dissertation Mohamed Abdelgader Ahmed Yassin.
November 21, ; Accepted: March 10, ; Published: April 15, Copyright: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
These rocks hold the vast majority of the remaining hydrocarbon reservoirs which is quit challenging because of generic hierarchy of different scale and sets of heterogeneities.
Identification and prediction of heterogeneities in these reservoirs is therefore a vital to efficiently and economically produce these reservoirs 1 - 3. Numerous studies by different groups have investigated the facies characteristics and their impact on reservoir heterogeneity 4 - These studies were based on outcrops and field data and also on constructed reservoir simulation model s, using detailed geological outcrop and oilfield data 11 - Among the objectives are to upscale and capture the effects of small scale heterogeneities on flow performance 16 - The outcomes of this study gives a surface-based modeling approach that has been used to construct a reservoir-scale, 3-D model of the facies architecture, used to represent both key stratigraphic horizons and facies boundaries in the model.
Siliciclastic shallow-marine sediments and rocks are product of the depositional environments located between land and sea and their response to a variety of forcing mechanisms The geomorphic evolution of such depositional environments including deltas, estuaries, lagoons, strand plains and tidal flats is controlled by the relative importance of several main factors, which includes; physical process regime, the internal dynamics of coastal and shelf depositional system, relative sea-level, sediment flux, tectonic setting and climate.
The main physical processes operating in these settings are river-derived flows, waves, shoreline and tidal-currents. The flow energy in such environments are generally higher 1927 - This resulted in a complex pattern of transportation and deposition of coarse sediments silt, sand and occasionally conglomerates.
The gross geomorphology of clastic coastal depositional environments is affected by the relative importance of long shore currents, waves and tides in controlling the amount, nature, distribution and transportation of sediment along the coast 3103132 Fig.
The significant alongshore sediment transport that produces coast parallel sedimentary features is by large swell waves generate, such as spits, barriers, sand bars and barrier islands.
Significant of coast parallel sedimentary features by large swell waves generate, such as spits, barriers, sand bars and barrier islands Tidal currents generally produce coast normal sedimentary features, including: Elongate tidal sand banks, wide-mouthed estuaries, funnel-shaped in plain view deltaic distributary channels and broad intertidal flats Fig.
These shallow-marine sandstone environments can be characterized by their distinct facies which are reliable indicator of any river, wave or tide-dominated environment depositional process Fig.
Having the concept of sedimentary facies and stratigraphy, facies analyses of high quality exposures in several coastal plains, all over the world provide an opportunity to examine the stratigraphic nature of these shallow-marine sandstone deposits.
Based on distinct assemblages of physical and biogenic sedimentary structures, the vertical sequence of facies, each depositional environment can be recognized.
Some present day examples have recently been described by many researchers 1827 But the individual facies are of little interpretative value. However, when use in combination as facies models, facies successions highlight lateral and vertical variations between different sedimentary environments.
Since, accurate facies models are an integral part of understanding the stratigraphic evolution of a depositional system. The aim of this study is to supports the hypotheses of previous researchers and reviews the documented information on shallow-marine siliciclastic depositional environments, the facies and stratigraphic characteristics of the sandstones and facies model and their impact on reservoir heterogeneity for detail analysis and demonstration on present conditions.
Shallow-marine environments are generally considered and classified according to physical process regime The main physical processes operating in shallow-marine setting are waves and storms, tidal currents and river-derived flows Shallow-marine sandstones can be characterized by their distinct features which are reliable indicators of shallow-marine environment.
First, the physical processes are generally distinctive: For example, extensive sheets and ridges of cross bedded sand deposited by strong currents, hummocky and swaley cross-stratification are distinctive sedimentary structures that are believed to be unique to storm-deposited sands.
Secondly, the organisms, either as body fossils, specifically benthic organisms that are only abundant in shelf environments or as trace fossils distinct shallow-marine trace fossil assemblage. Third are the lithology and texture, mainly sand and mud with some gravel and moderately to well-sorted.
Therefore, shallow-marine depositional system is based upon the long-term movement of the shoreline and the key depositional processes. This shoreline movement is controlled by the balance between the amount of sediment supplied to the depositional system and the amount of accommodation space created 40Petroleum Geology and Reservoir Characterization of the Upper Devonian Gordon Sandstone, Jacksonburg-Stringtown Oil Field, Northwestern West Virginia.
A reservoir characterization study is a part of the development of a reservoir model. This article describes each of the basic elements involved in a reservoir characterization study. Fulltext - Shallow-marine Sandstone Reservoirs, Depositional Environments, Stratigraphic Characteristics and Facies Model: A Review.
DEVELOPMENT OF ARTIFICIAL EXPERT RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION TOOLS FOR UNCONVENTIONAL RESERVOIRS A Dissertation in Scale and uncertainty of reservoir characterization (Nikravesh and Hassibi, - I have been indebted in the preparation of this thesis to my advisers, Dr.
Turgay Ertekin and Dr. Luis Ayala, for their patience, kindness, and. This research is a comprehensive characterization of the Woodford Shale within an area of six townships and ranges located at the boundary of Garfield and Kingfisher Counties in Oklahoma.
Geologic characterization of the Morrow B reservoir in Farnsworth Unit, TX using 3D VSP seismic, seismic attributes, and well logs.
by Paige Czoski Submitted in Partial Fulﬁllment of the Requirements for the Degree of This thesis was typeset with LATEX1 by the author.