Practical help The Mental Health Association NSW has prepared a facts sheet which is designed to assist people living with the fear of terrorist attacks or other human-made disaster. The information aims to address the anxiety that can affect people in the face of impending terrorist attack, and what to do after such an event.
Introduction Social structure and order, governance of society and politics are dependent on good communication, and good communication requires agreement on definitions of terminology. Terrorism can dramatically influence the world, as shown by the far-reaching and prolonged effects of the attacks in New York on 11th September However a suitable universal definition remains elusive because different bodies, organisations and government agencies have different definitions to suit their own particular role, purpose or bias.
Methodology A broad internet literature search was performed by entering key words in widely used internet search engines such as Google and Yahoo. Often the information presented was second or third hand and had been altered to suit the bias of the author.
All but a few were rejected. Separating truth from disinformation is a hazard when researching terrorism. Organisations, governments, national states and other bodies that have social and political influence were searched through the internet and classical texts on the topic of terrorism in order to examine their definitions of terrorism and how these definitions affect their social and political influence.
These searches were performed during January and February United Nations Terrorism is international.
Agreement on a common definition would be a step towards universal cooperation in the prevention of terrorism. The UN unsuccessfully attempted to get universal agreement after the Munich Olympic massacre. Some nations, particularly in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, were unwilling to label groups as terrorists if they sympathised with their aims, because of the perjorative aspects of the label.
The West has also sympathised with groups which have committed terrorist activities. The Reagan administration supported the Nicaraguan Contras and there was Western support for the African National Congress in South Africa in the mids when their actions were terrorist.
Nonetheless, the UN has struggled to provide a definition that is accepted by all nations. The Convention only covered one very small aspect of terrorism. Academic Research Researchers and academic students of terrorism desire the intellectual discipline of a definition to enable focussing on a specified topic.
Most academic definitions emphasise the combination of violence, politics, sociology and psychology. The threat of violence is included as well as actual violence. Firstly, it is an act of violence that produces widespread disproportionate emotional reactions such as fear and anxiety which are likely to influence attitudes and behaviour.
Secondly, the violence is systemic and rather unpredictable and is usually directed against symbolic targets. Thirdly, the violence conveys messages and threats in order to communicate and gain social control.
Agreement on definitions of terrorism will assist the research and study which may progress to counter measures for the benefit of democratic governments and society. Legal Profession The legal profession desires a definition that can be used for the successful prosecution and conviction of accused terrorists.
Defence or an appeal by an accused terrorist is easier if the crimes are ambiguously defined. This Act emphasises the danger to human life, covers the critical infrastructure and key resources, but also includes the psychological and political aspects.
It is primarily legalistic but does acknowledge the psychological, social and political aims of such groups. Members of the group that planned a suicide attack on Holsworthy Army Barracks were prosecuted and convicted under anti-terrorism legislation. Prosecutors in Australia and overseas can have more success using conventional charges under the criminal code because of the imprecision of the legal definition of terrorism, particularly if a violent terrorist act has taken place, whereas anti-terrorist legislation becomes more relevant if there is a threat of violence or if the terrorist act is still in the planning stage Accurate legal definition of terrorism is important for society and for governance to enable successful investigation and prosecution of terrorists within the established judicial system.
Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorist Agencies Law enforcement agencies involved in counter-terrorism and intelligence e. FBI, Special Branch of Scotland Yard, Australian Federal Police Counter-Terrorism need definitions of terrorism as guidelines for their task and legal endorsement for duties which are close to and sometimes over the boundaries of civil liberty.
Consequently their definitions have more emphasis on actions and criminality than motivation and psychology so that the investigation of individuals and groups can be justified more on the basis of their activities rather than their presumed motives.
Actual acts of terrorist violence are emphasised above the threats of the violence. These definitions can have significant social and political implications. They can benefit society by empowering effective counter-terrorism measures.
They can harm society if they allow measures that cross the boundaries of civil liberties.
Governments and Political Parties There are two reasons why politicians or governments will place importance on the definition of terrorism.Sep 08, · Megan Schuster grew up with September Like others of her generation, particularly kids from the suburbs that surround New York City, she learned too soon about fear and loss.
Indeed, terrorism is a hostile activity that is primarily aimed at civilians, with the purpose of advancing a specific agenda, political or other.
Sadly, terrorist attacks, more than wars, are now claiming visibility in the news headlines in most regions of the world. Living with Terrorism: Everyday Life and the Effects of TerrorThe ConflictPeace is a global ideal, but around the world people face violence—terrorism—on a regular basis.
From Northern Ireland to Israel, Palestine, and other points on the globe, many individuals face the threat, uncertainty, and fear of terrorism every day.
About “Generation Wealth” “Generation Wealth” is a multi-platform project that Lauren Greenfield has been working on since , and is being released in as a museum exhibition, a photographic monograph, and a documentary film..
Lauren Greenfield’s “Generation Wealth” is an extraordinary visual history of our growing obsession with . Get the latest international news and world events from Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and more. See world news photos and videos at ashio-midori.com Acts of terrorism can have a profound influence on both the lives of the victims and the region’s economy.
Social effects of terrorism can include injury, death, and psychological trauma, while local and national markets can experience a downturn in both the short term and the long term.