Structural violence Structural violence is an important factor in the treatment of people living with AIDS. Poor Farmer argues that social determinants affecting the lives of certain cultural groups alter their risk of infections and their ability to access treatment. Educating doctors on the interactions between social life and healthcare would help level out the injustices in healthcare. Research[ edit ] Current research has found that discrimination against people living with HIV is a contributing factor for delayed initiation of HIV treatment.
First, we learn that exposure to a traumatic stressor does not automatically put a person on a path to develop PTSD. Second, scientific documentation is provided that protective factors decrease the risk of being exposed to a traumatic stressor from generating PTSD or other disorders such as depression and suicidal or violent behavior.
Finally, a theoretically-sound, evidence-based, common sense model is offered as a "directionally correct" way to ensure that at-risk populations obtain protective factors to prevent a potential traumatic stressor from generating poor health and mental health outcomes. Using the same criteria, another research group 3 found that by age 18 years, more than two-fifths of youths in a community sample had been exposed to an event that was severe enough to qualify for a diagnosis of PTSD.
Finally, using the DSM-IV criteria Breslau and colleagues 5 examined trauma exposure and the diagnosis of PTSD in a telephoned community sample of 2, individuals in the Detroit area and found that the lifetime prevalence of trauma exposure was As the estimated lifetime prevalence rate of PTSD ranges from 7.
Most people affected by a trauma event will adapt in a period of 3 - 6 months following trauma 8 and only a small proportion will develop long-term psychiatric disorders 9 A National Imperative 11 and Dr. Satcher's Surgeon General's Report on Youth Violence 12 point out, risk factors are not predictive factors.
Given this reality it would be helpful to identify people at risk for subsequent psychiatric disorders as prevention and early intervention could prevent the development of such disorders.
Unfortunately, the study of protective factors and their role in mental health and wellness are poorly organized and originate from many different disciplines that all use different models and language. Further, science has given minimal attention to protective factors as mental health fields tend to be rooted in deficit models instead of strength models.
As Sartorius former President of the World Psychiatric Association 16 points out "psychiatry has to do with diseases as well as distress," thus "many psychiatrists will concentrate on the recognition and treatment of mental disorders.
Accordingly, many psychiatrists live on a DSM - IV planet where your job is to make a diagnosis, offer treatment for the disease you have diagnosed, and submit a bill.
Unfortunately, this creates a philosophy replete with deficit models, and many mental health professionals are skilled at filling out a problem list, but have difficulty filling out a strength list for patients they serve. This tendency to focus only on disease and deficits and to "catastrophize" 18 traumatic events has hampered the field's progress in developing strategies to prevent mental illnesses.
This criticism is not to say that "deficit models" or models that only focus on disease don't have value, as they do have value.
However, using a deficit model to diagnose and treat an observable mental illness should not also preclude developing strategies to keep them from manifesting their full clinical potential. Medicine has a history of developing efficacious and effective prevention strategies for what historically were thought to be mental illnesses, e.
Thus, a public health model of psychiatry, which seeks to prevent mortality and morbidity from current mental disorders, like PTSD and Depression, is being developed in the 21st century. The Community Mental Health Council's CMHC clinical work with traumatized individuals 19 suggests that repeated exposure to minimal or moderate stressors can build resilience Accordingly, we have proposed Table 1 to model CMHC's understanding of how one verses repeated stressors and how mild or severe stressors interact.
Studies are coming out that clarify the biological protective factors 21 and how to cultivate them. These results provide the first prospective evidence that moderately stressful early experiences strengthen socioemotional and neuroendocrine resistance to subsequent stressors John McKnight 22 at Northwestern University has done a great deal of advocating for this approach and Felton Earl's 23 group from Harvard has also shown that "collective efficacy" a measure for social fabric has been linked with healthier communities.
Finally, studies are also starting to come out that focus on both risk and protective factors mediate psychological symptoms of adolescents facing continuing terrorism 24and other traumas 27 Suicide prevention research shows that social support and connectedness, including close relationships, sometimes represents part of a protective process that increases self-efficacy and thereby reduces suicidal behavior Programs that promote protective factors, e.
Further, by creating a sense of purpose and hope 37 - 39a number of studies provide some evidence that spiritual protective factors e.
Strategies that include encouraging early mental health intervention and offering coordinated services among agencies, normalizing help- seeking behavior, and increasing protective factors, and effective coping skills have also been shown to reduce the risk for suicide Normalizing help seeking behavior is a health behavior change that can be achieved by: Protective factor strategies have also been found useful in preventing risk factors from being predictive factors for violence 49 - 53 and psychiatric illness 54 More specifically, protective factors have been found to prevent stress-related disorders such as PTSD.
Chemtob et al 55 developed a psychosocial intervention for post disaster trauma symptoms in elementary school children. These researchers did a community-wide, school-based screening of 4, public elementary school children in second through sixth grades who were exposed to a hurricane in Kauai.
To test the effectiveness of the intervention, the children were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 consecutively treated groups each of which had to wait for their treatment.
The researchers chose children with the highest levels of psychological trauma symptoms and gave them four sessions of manual-guided psychotherapy individual and group consisting of four sessions: The post treatment group reported significant reductions in their self-reported symptoms and this reduction remained in effect when assessed a year later.
Treated children had fewer trauma symptoms compared with untreated children.This Module on ‘Counselling’, prepared in Zambia, gives a definition of counselling and deals with it from the point of view of Africa. The aims and fields of counselling, the various approaches used, and the skills needed are all described in detail.
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The Importance of Education: Alleviating Extreme Poverty 0. By admin on October 16, Many of the nations and organizations have recognized the importance of a proper education, and have worked to establish a strong education . This article presents a principle that is essential to building a wellness approach that uses public health prevention strategies to prevent Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and other psychiatric disorders that come from exposure to trauma.
Stage-wise Syllabus for Environmental Education. Mission Statement. Creating a society of motivated citizens committed to conservation, preservation and protection of the environment and striving towards a life in perfect harmony with nature.
Importance of Education Speech 4. Good morning to the Excellencies, respected teachers and my dear friends. I would like to speech over the importance of education at this special occasion. The real meaning of education is much more than the success in personal and professional life.
People in the modern society have narrowed the . Your daily advancement in masonic study. Encyclopedia, short articles, videos, myths and more.