Distinguish macro approaches in sociology from micro approaches. Summarize the most important beliefs and assumptions of functionalism and conflict theory.
Consequently, several different theoretical approaches to the study of development and the life course have been proposed and advocated. The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences and similarities between these three broad approaches.
However, this exposition would be incomplete without a discussion of the concept of world views Kuhn, ; Pepper, This world view not only affects how an individual conceptualizes a particular field of study but also influences Theorethical perspectives questions they ask within that field of study.
Therefore, this paper will also include a discussion of the three major world views influencing developmental psychology: World Views There are three major world views which influence developmental psychology.
They are the organismic, mechanistic, and contextual world views Pepper, Each of these world views will be briefly discussed below. This will be followed by an analysis of five developmental issues as they relate to the concept of world view.
The first world view to be discussed is the organismic world view Pepper, According to this metaphor, the organism is composed of interconnected, interrelated parts which constitute a complex, organized system. This system, while composed of parts, can only be understood as a whole.
In other words, only by examining the system as a whole does it Theorethical perspectives meaning; the whole is equal to more than the sum of the parts. Additionally, the biological organism is seen as active rather than passive. Thus, according to this world view, change and movement come from within rather than in response to environmental or external influences.
The influence of the organismic world view on the conceptualization of the individual in relation to developmental psychology can be described as follows: First, according to this view, the individual can be conceptualized and understood only as a whole entity; a gestalt.
A developmental psychologist operating from an organismic world view would examine individual as a whole and the parts as they relate to the whole. Second the individual is seen as the source of their acts. Development comes from within as opposed to being in response to external forces; development is genetically prewired.
Third, change is qualitative and unidirectional.
Developmental psychologists operating from this perspective define development as a series of progressive changes in structure. This structural change is assumed to be directed toward some end point or goal; a teleological perspective.
According to this metaphor, the organism is primarily reactive by nature; the organism does not serve as the source of its own acts. The computer metaphor is a good example. The computer does not create its own output but rather only responds to the input of data or, in other words external forces.
Thus, according to the mechanistic world view, the organism is passive. In addition, the mechanistic world view examines the specific parts that make up the whole as opposed to the whole.
This view assumes that the whole is equal to the sum of the parts. For example, if one were examining the basis of a computer output, one would study the initial program.
One would look at each line of input data separately to determine the effect on the whole. Thus, the mechanistic world view maintains that through the study of the individual parts, the individual as a whole can be understood.
The influence of the mechanistic world view on the conceptualization of the individual in relation to developmental psychology can be described as follows: First, the individual can be conceptualized and understood only by understanding the parts which make up the whole.
For example, a developmental psychologist would study a behavior or emotional response by reducing it to its most simple elements. Second the individual is described principally as a passive-reactive entity. Development does not occur from within the individual but rather is in response to external forces.
Third, change is quantitative.
Changes in behavior are viewed as differences in degree as opposed to differences in kind and as such can be operationally defined and measured. Last, as individuals are reactive, passive beings, there is no overall purpose to human activity - no teleology.
Thus, development and change are not directed towards some end point or goal. This world view uses the historic event or the dialectic as its metaphor. The contextual world view defines reality as an ongoing and dynamic event.
Therefore, the event is active. However, the event is also reactive; it occurs within the context of other events that are also dynamic and ongoing.Criminology: Theoretical Perspectives Rational Choice and Deterrence Historical Perspectives Classical Criminology - Cesare Beccaria: Human beings are rational beings, and would therefore ultimately conclude it was in their best interest to limit some of their freedoms.
Watch theoretical perspectives of anthropology video lessons and learn about structuralism, functionalism, cultural ecology and other theoretical. - Theoretical perspectives help us study the underlying questions we have about society. Each perspective concentrates on diverse characteristics of society.
These aspects are analyzed on different levels to develop theories. When it comes to comparative criminal justice, the focus perspective is the comparability and . School of Distance Education Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology Page 5 DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY Definition A Theory is a set of interrelated concepts used to describe, explain, and predict how.
|What is a theoretical perspective||Social Movements Three Major Perspectives in Sociology Sociologists analyze social phenomena at different levels and from different perspectives.|
|Downloading prezi...||Full Answer In essence, theoretical perspectives can be described as lenses through which people look to focus or distort what they see. There are many examples of theoretical perspectives, the most common being the field of sociology because it makes assumptions that social systems such as societies and families exist and that culture, roles and statuses are real.|
|Three Major Perspectives in Sociology||Theoretical Perspectives of Psychology Various perspectives of psychology try to explore the human mind in their own ways.|
|Grief: Theoretical Perspectives||Consequently, several different theoretical approaches to the study of development and the life course have been proposed and advocated.|
Six Contemporary Theoretical Perspectives in Psychology. Social Science. The science of psychology is one where there are many approaches to solve, work with and explain what is happening with the mind. Each of the theories has merit. It is more a matter of personal preferences and some take a bit from each to form their own beliefs.
The three major sociological perspectives inform the theories of aging. Theories in the functionalist perspective focus on the role of elders in terms of the functioning of society as a whole. Theories in the conflict perspective concentrate on how elders, as a group, are at odds with other groups in society.